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Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan Eudokia of… …   Wikipedia, Alexios I of Trebizond — Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos ; c. 1182 ndash; February 1, 1222) was Emperor of Trebizond from ruled 1204to 1222. Genealogy for Kaloioannes Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond (1338 - 1390) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222. Other allusions and works set in Trebizond continue into the 20th century. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. During his long reign, Alexios III had repaired the physical damage to the capital, gave rich endowments to several monasteries, especially Soumela Monastery, and founded the Dionysiou monastery at Mount Athos. Although their expansion was temporarily checked by Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, by the 1430s the Ottomans had recovered their fortunes, seizing large segments of Greece and finally capturing Constantinople itself on 29 May 1453. The document is also… …   Wikipedia, Komnene, daughter of Alexios I of Trebizond — Komnene was the wife of Andronikos I of Trebizond. But the Venetians were not content with their gains and jealously quarreled with the Genoese. [24] While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. Karpov, "New Archival Discoveries of Documents concerning the Empire of Trebizond", Kuršanskis, "Trébizonde et la Géorgie", pp. Communication New! He was the son of Emperor Basil of… The Empire of Trebizond or Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy and one of three successor rump states of the Byzantine Empire that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia (the Pontus) and the southern Crimea. [33] Western travelers used Trebizond as their starting point for journeys into Asia; these travelers included Marco Polo, who returned to Europe in 1295 by way of Trebizond. When Basil died on April 6, 1340 and his first wife Irene Palaiologina succeeded him, she sent all the children of her dead husband to Constantinople together with their mother. Karpov interprets the significance of this image and the inscription as portraying the most important achievement of his life, St. George inviting the victorious prince to enter Trebizond and opening the gates of the city with his left hand. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. [18] This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. The core of the empire was the southern Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Yeşilırmak river, a region known to the Trapezuntines as Limnia, possibly as far east as Akampsis river, a region then known as Lazia; Anthony Bryer has argued that six of the seven banda of the Byzantine theme of Chaldia were maintained in working order by the rulers of Trebizond until the end of the empire, helped by geography. The young emperor was supported by his mother and some loyal generals and courtiers, including Michael Panaretos, whose laconic chronicle is the principal source on the political history of the Empire of Trebizond. He was the eldest son of Manuel Komnenos and of Rusudan …   Wikipedia, Alexios III — There have been two rulers called Alexios III:* Alexios III Angelos, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire * Alexios III Megas Komenos, Emperor of Trebizond …   Wikipedia, Manuel III of Trebizond — Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. [16] However, his successors used a version of his title, "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Perateia" until the Empire's end in 1461.[17]. [citation needed], Under the rule of Alexios III, Trebizond was considered an important trade center and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment. Karl von Hahn, Известия древних греческих и римских писателей о Кавказе, II, pp. "Narratives of the Fall: Structure and Meaning in the Genesis Frieze at Hagia Sophia, Trebizond". In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. [46], Map of the Empire of Trebizond shortly after the foundation of the, From the civil wars to the end of the 14th century, "Some scholars believe that the new state was subject to. Some authorities identify Taronites with the known son of Theodore Gabras. In spite of his victories over the nobles, Alexios showed restraint and willingness to compromise by granting charters to noble families confirming them in possession of their lands. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios II Megas Komnēnos", Sept.-Dec. 1282–1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. Alexios II of Trebizond (2 December 1282-3 May 1330) was Emperor of Trebizond from 16 August 1297 to 3 May 1330, succeeding John II and preceding Andronikos III.. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV ( Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized : Alexios IV Megas Komnēnos, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. During his reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond. The typikon of the Dionysiou is an object of artistic merit and beauty. 102, 305. Greek text in. He collected a sizable army at Bursa, and in a surprise move marched on Sinope, whose emir quickly surrendered. It was at this point that he adopted the name Alexios, and he was crowned on January 21, 1350 in the company of his mother Irene and of John Lazaropoulos, who later became Metropolitan of Trebizond. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. I… [32] He was the first ruler to issue silver coins, which were known as aspers. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Alexios was raised at the Byzantine court. [25], After marching from Georgia, and with the help of their paternal aunt Queen Tamar, Alexios and David occupied Trebizond in April 1204. [40] Through Theodora and the daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond (also named Theodora), the Safavid dynasty of Iran that succeeded the Ak Koyunlu, would be of direct partial Pontic Greek ethnicity from its very beginning. Her first name is unknown. "[36], The last years of the fourteenth century were characterized by the increasing Turkish threat. Perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. Miller, "Trebizond: The Last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era", Chicago, 1926. Irene of Trebizond (died around 1382) was the bigamous wife of Basil of Trebizond, by whom he had two sons, Alexios and John (later Alexios III of Trebizond), and possibly three daughters Anna, Maria and Theodora. Insubordinate nobles had to be overwhelmed one by one by the emperor's forces. [6] Henceforth, the links between Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature and extent have been disputed. He was the elder son of John II and Eudokia Palaiologina. Biography. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of … Trebizond was a port reachable by all the routes that crossed the Black Sea, and therefore a safe shelter in case of storms. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. Niketas and his aristocratic supporters were taken captive and brought to Trebizond, where he died in 1360. 49 relations. Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", (3/7/2007), "La date de la prise de Trébizonde par les Turcs (1461)", "Présence de l'aigle bicéphale en Trebizonde et dans la principauté grecque de Théodoro en Crimée (XIVe-XVe siècles)", "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Establishment of the Empire of Trebizond by the Grand Komnenoi, 1204", "Very Rare Issue of Interest to Both Byzantine & Crusader Collectors", "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", "Diocese of Cerasous. He gave his daughter Theodora (also known by the name of Despina Khatun) to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. Despite the ravages of the previous decade, Trebizond rebounded during the reign of Alexios III. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) continued the tradition of political marriages by marrying two of his daughters to rulers of two neighboring Muslim empires: Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu. The Despotate of Epirus had ceased to contest the Byzantine throne even before the Nicaean reconquest and was briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency later inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire in 1479. [37] While Murad's son and successor, Mehmed II, was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, he took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute. Wikipedia Alexios III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. "So I dared to assume," writes Karpov, "that the seal points out the date of the capture of Trebizond. Evidence for their Resources, Products, Agriculture, Ownership and Location", As documented by Charitopoulos Evangelos, "Diocese of Cerasous. Another concession to Venice followed in 1367, and gradually lowered some of the dues levied on Venetian commerce. Alexios was also unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce. The throne then passed to his son-in-law Andronikos I Gidos Komnenos. David Komnenos, the younger brother of the first Emperor, expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then coastal parts of Paphlagonia (the modern-day coastal regions of Kastamonu, Bartın, and Zonguldak) and Heraclea Pontica (the modern-day Karadeniz Ereğli), until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios III Megas Komnēnos"), (October 5, 1338 – March 20, 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. This threat was not from the small Turkmen emirates that bordered Trebizond, but from the dynasty of the Osmanli, a new Turkish power emerging from western Anatolia that would soon consolidate the Ottoman Empire. 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